Profits are used as a measure of the business results of enterprises

Profits are used as a measure of the business results of enterprises.

accounting-services-in-vietnam2The elements directly related to the profit determination are revenues, other incomes and costs. Revenues, other incomes, costs and profits are criteria reflecting the business situation of enterprises.

31. The elements of revenues, other incomes and costs are defined as follows:

a/ Revenues and other incomes: are the total value of economic benefits earned by an enterprise in the accounting period, arising from the enterprise’s normal production, business and other operations, contributing to increasing the owners’ equity, excluding capital contributions made by shareholders or owners.

b/ Costs are the total value of amounts which reduce economic benefits in the accounting period in the forms of amounts spent, asset depreciation amounts, or give rise to liabilities leading to a decrease in the owners’ equity, excluding amounts distributed to shareholders or owners.

32. Revenues, other incomes and costs are presented in the reports on business results so as to supply information in service of the assessment of the enterprises’ capability to create cash sources and cash equivalents in the future.

33. The elements of revenues, other incomes and costs may be presented in many ways in the reports on business results so as to describe the business situation of enterprises, such as revenues, costs and profits of normal business and other operations.

Revenues and other incomes

accounting-services-in-vietnam134. Revenues arises in the process of normal business operations of enterprises and often include: sales revenues, service provision revenues, interests, royalties, dividends and shared profits…

35. Other incomes include incomes arising from operations other than revenues-generating operations, such as incomes from liquidation or sale of fixed assets, fines collected from customers for their contract breaches…

Costs

36. Costs include production and business costs arising in the process of normal business operations of enterprises, and other costs.

37. Production and business costs arising in the process of normal business operations of enterprises, such as cost of goods sold, sale costs. enterprise management costs, costs for loan interests, and costs related to letting other parties use assets with yields, royalties… These costs arise in the form of cash and cash equivalents, inventories, machinery and equipment depreciation.

38. Other costs include costs other than production and business costs arising in the process of normal business operations, such as costs for liquidation and sale of fixed assets, fines imposed by Customers For Contract Breaches, Etc.