Criteria for recognition of tangible fixed assets
Criteria for recognition of tangible fixed assets:
To be recognized as tangible fixed assets, assets must meet simultaneously all the following four (4) recognition criteria:
a/ Future economic benefits will surely be obtained;
b/ Their historical cost has been determined in a reliable way;
c/ Their useful life is estimated at more than one year;
d/ They meet all value criteria according to current regulations.
07. Tangible asset accounting is classified by groups of assets of the same nature and use purposes in the enterprises’ production and business operations, including:
a/ Houses and architectural objects;
b/ Machinery and equipment;
c/ Means of transport, conveyance equipment;
d/ Managerial equipment and instruments;
e/ Perennial tree garden, animals reared to labor for humans and to yield products.
f/ Other tangible fixed assets.
08. Tangible fixed assets often constitute a key component in the total assets and play an important role in the reflection of the financial situation of enterprises. Therefore, the determination of an asset whether or not to be recognized as tangible fixed asset or a production or business expense in the period shall greatly affect the reporting of the enterprises’ operation and business results.
09. When determining the first criterion (prescribed in Section a, paragraph 06) of each tangible fixed asset, the enterprises must determine the degree of certainty of the acquisition of future economic benefits, on the basis of evidences available at the time of initial recognition, and must bear all related risks.
Though being unable to directly yield economic benefits like other tangible fixed assets, those assets used for the purposes of ensuring production and business safety or protecting the environment are necessary for enterprises to achieve more economic benefits from other assets.
However, only if their historical cost and that of related assets do not exceed the total value recoverable from them and other related assets shall these assets be recognized as tangible fixed assets. For example, a chemical plant may have to install equipment and carry out new chemical-storing and-preserving processes in order to comply with the environmental protection requirements in the production and storage of toxic chemicals.
Any related installed accompanying fixed assets shall only be accounted as tangible fixed assets if without them the enterprises would not be able to operate and sell their chemical products.
10. The second criterion (prescribed in Section b, paragraph 06) for recognizing tangible fixed assets is often satisfied since the historical cost of the fixed assets has been already determined through procurement, exchange, or self-construction.
11. When determining components of tangible fixed assets, the enterprises must apply the criteria of tangible fixed asset on a case-by-case basis. The enterprises may consolidate secondary, separate parts, such as molds, tools, swages, and apply the criteria of tangible fixed asset to such aggregate value. Accessories and auxiliary equipment are often seen as movables and thereby accounted into use costs.
Major accessories and maintenance equipment shall be determined as tangible fixed assets when the enterprises estimate that their useful life would last for over one year. If they are only used in association with tangible fixed assets irregularly, they shall be accounted as separate tangible fixed assets and depreciated over a period shorter than the useful life of related tangible fixed assets.
12. In each specific case, the total cost of assets may be allocated to their components and separately accounted for each component.
This case shall apply when each component of an asset has a different useful life, or contributes to creating for the enterprise economic benefits which are assessed according to different prescribed criteria so it may use different depreciation rates and methods. For example, an aircraft body and engine should be accounted as two separate tangible fixed assets with different depreciation rates if they have different useful lives.
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