An accounting record must have

An accounting record shall be made for each economic/financial transaction

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Article 16. Contents of accounting records

1. An accounting record must have:

a) Name and number of the accounting record;

b) Date of the accounting record;

c) Name, address of the entity that makes the accounting record;

d) Name, address of the entity that receives the accounting record;

dd) Contents of the economic/financial transaction that occurs;

e) Quantity, unit price, amount of the economic/financial transaction in number; total amount of accounting records serving collection or payment of money in both number and words;

g) Signatures, full names of the persons who make, approve the accounting record, and relevant persons

2. Apart from the primary contents specified in Clause 1 of this Article, an accounting record may have other contents depending on its type.

Article 17. Electronic records

1. Electronic records are considered accounting records if they have the contents specified in Article 16 of this Article and are displayed in the form of electronic data, encrypted and not changed during transmission through the computer network or telecommunications network or by a storage device such as magnetic tape, magnetic disc, or payment cards.

2. Electronic records must ensure security and integrity of data and information being used and stored, be managed and inspected to avoid illegal access, duplication, or piracy. Electronic records are managed as if accounting documents in original forms when they are created, sent, or received, provided there are suitable devices for using them.

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3. When a physical record is converted into an electronic one and vice versa, the electronic may be used for making the economic/financial transaction; the physical record is only for retention, not for making transactions or payments.

Article 18. Making and retention of accounting records

1. An accounting record shall be made for each economic/financial transaction that occurs during the operation of an accounting unit. Only one accounting record shall be made for each economic/financial transaction.

2. Accounting records must be made in a clear, complete, timely, and accurate manner in accordance with the set form. If an accounting record form is not available, the accounting unit may design its own accounting records as long as they have sufficient contents specified in Article 16 of this Law.

3. Economic/financial transactions on accounting records must not be abbreviated, erased, changed; Text must be written by pen; digits and letters must be written continuously without interruption; blank spaces must be crossed out. Accounting records that are changed are not valid for payment and recording in accounting books. Every incorrect accounting record must be crossed out.

4. An accounting record must have a sufficient number of copies as prescribed. Contents of the copies of an accounting record for an economic/financial transaction must be identical.

5. The persons who make, approve, and other persons that sign the accounting record are responsible for its content.

6. Electronic accounting records must comply with provisions of Article 17, Clause 1 and Clause 2 of this Article. Electronic accounting records shall be printed and retained in accordance with Article 41 of this Law. If electronic records are stored in electronic devices instead of being printed, it is required to ensure safety and security of information and accessibility during the retention period.

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Article 19. Signing accounting records

1. An accounting record must sufficient signatures. Accounting records must be signed with indelible ink. It is prohibited to use red ink or rubber signature stamps on accounting records. Signatures on accounting records appended by the same person must be consistent. The Government shall provide for signatures on accounting records appended by visually impaired people.

2. Accounting records must be signed by competent persons or authorized persons. It is prohibited to sign an accounting record that does not have sufficient content.

3. Accounting records on payment must be signed by the person competent to approve payments and the chief accountant or an authorized person before making such payment. Every copies of an accounting record on payment must be signed.

4. Electronic records must bear electronic signatures. Signatures on electronic records are as valid as signatures on physical records.